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はじめに

Water Use and Environment in Japan – Introduction

はじめに

 河川、湖沼、地下水、海域は、古来より水源、水産、交通など人々の日常生活や産業活動の基盤として重要な役割を担ってきたのみでなく、快適な水辺環境を提供し、憩いの場としての機能も果たしてきた。しかし、近代よりの生活レベルの向上と産業活動の拡大に伴い、水環境に多大な影響を与えてさまざまな問題を起こすようになった。水は雨となって地上に降り注ぎ、森林や土壌・地下水に保水され、川を下り、海に注ぎ、蒸発して再び雨になる自然の循環過程の中にある。
 水は降水から河川、海域に向かうまでの間、資源として供給されさまざまな形で何度も使用されたのち、自然の循環経路に戻される。水利用はこの循環過程の水のみならず、同時に土壌や生物に大きな影響を与えている。したがって、水利用に伴う環境負荷が自然の浄化能力を超えることがないよう、さらに、水の量と質、水生生物、水辺空間などを考慮総合的な水環境への対応が大切である。
 本サイトでは、生活や産業において水利用により発生する水質汚濁の発生源とその汚濁機構を紹介するとともに、水環境を保全するための技術について紹介する。

Introduction

 Rivers, lakes, groundwater, and sea areas have not only played an important role as the basis of people’s daily lives and industrial activities such as water sources, fisheries, and transportation since ancient times, but also provide a comfortable waterside environment and serve as a place of relaxation. Has also fulfilled the function of. However, with the improvement of living standards and the expansion of industrial activities from the modern age, it has caused a lot of problems to have a great influence on the water environment.
 It is in the natural circulation process where water turns into rain and falls on the ground, is retained in forests, soil and groundwater, flows down rivers, pours into the sea, and evaporates to rain again. Water is supplied as a resource, used many times in various forms, from the precipitation to the rivers and seas, and then returned to the natural circulation path. Water use has a great impact not only on water in this cycle but also on soil and living things. Therefore, it is important to take into consideration the amount and quality of water, aquatic life, waterside space, etc., and to take a comprehensive approach to the water environment so that the environmental load associated with water use does not exceed the natural purification capacity.
 This site introduces the sources of water pollution caused by water use in daily life and industry and its pollution mechanism, as well as the technology for conserving the water environment.

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